Vitrectomy is a microsurgical procedure used to treat certain retinal disorders such as macular hole, epimacular membrane, retinal detachment, proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity is a disease of small, premature babies. It is characterized by inadequate development of the blood vessels of the retina. When a child is born prematurely, the retinal blood vessels often have not developed to the far extent of the retina, and areas in the peripheral retina do not have blood vessels. These areas of “avascular” retina that do…

Retinal Venous Occlusion

Retinal vein occlusion is second only to diabetic retinopathy as a cause of vision loss due to disease affecting the blood circulation of the retina. There are two types: branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

Macular Holes

The macula is the center of the retina. It is responsible for central vision (straight ahead vision), your best vision, and most color vision. The center of the macula is called the fovea.

Idiopathic Perifoveal Telangiectasia

Idiopathic Perifoveal Telangiectasis is commonly referred to as macular telangiectasia, a retinal disorder that affects the center most part of the macula.  This poorly understood disease is most common in people between 40 to 60 years old. Dilated and leaky retinal capillaries develop around the temporal part of the foveal area and may eventually encompass the entire area, causing pigmentation to migrate below the…

Flashes and Floaters

Flashes are sometimes caused by mechanical stimulation of the retina, often referred to as “pulling”, “forces”, or “traction”. Floaters are relatively transparent, vague, usually curved objects that are seen best when looking at a white piece of paper, blue sky, light colored ceiling, or wall. They sometimes look like cobwebs, worms, rings, dots, or specks. Eye movement makes floaters more visible as…

Eye Anatomy – The Retina

The retina is the delicate lining at the back of the eye that functions much like the film in a camera. It receives light through the lens in your eye, forms that light into images, and sends those images to the brain, enabling you to see. The retina is composed of several layers of cells, including nerve cells, that do many things….

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is damage to the retina caused by diabetes from abnormally high blood sugar levels. Naturally the level of circulating blood sugar must average 100 mg/dl (80 to 100 fasting and 120 two hours after meals). Long standing higher concentrations of blood sugar results in damage to capillaries (tiny, hair-like blood vessels). Since the retina requires high levels of oxygen to…

Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is a broad term describing diseases that lead to a loss of central vision. Some of these diseases affect the macula directly, while age related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the layer under the macula known as the retinal pigment epithelium, or RPE. Note that the conditions called macular hole and epimacular membrane (also called “macular pucker”, “wrinkling”, or “cellophane”) are not macular…

Epimacular Membranes

An epimacular membrane is a thin layer of tissue on the front surface of the macula which is the center of the retina and the region responsible for acute vision. Q: What is an epimacular membrane (EMM)? A: A thin layer of tissue on the surface of the macula. The macula is the center of the retina and is responsible for straight ahead…